Capite

Pacifica

grammaticissima

  • Aedilis

Location:
Belgium
Online dictionary did not define aegrum as an adjective, only a noun
You should probably stop using that dictionary.

You could use this one. Or even Wiktionary, which has occasional mistakes but is usually good enough if you don't want many details.
Why is there not ever an accusative after sum?
Sum doesn't take a direct object. It takes a predicate complement, which usually agrees with the subject in the nominative, though it can also be other things such as a prepositional phrase; e.g. in campo sum. The only time the subject and its complement can be accusative is when the form of sum used is an infinitive (esse or fuisse) in an accusative-and-infinitive clause (e.g. se aegrum esse dicit). The precise form sum can't take the accusative. You can't say aegrum sum (unless you're a neuter thing; it still would be nominative, just in the neuter form); it's aeger sum (or aegra for a female).
 
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Pacifica

grammaticissima

  • Aedilis

Location:
Belgium
it can also be other things such as a prepositional phrase; e.g. in campo sum.
Of course the preposition can be one that takes the accusative, e.g. prope campum sum, but the predicate complement then is the whole phrase prope campum, with campum being the object of the preposition prope; it's not sum taking the accusative.
 
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MIB

Civis

  • Civis

Location:
Phoenix, AZ, USA
With the verb to be, there is no action moving from the subject to the object; it is not transitive, so can not take a direct object.

Edit: ninja'd
 

Devenius Dulenius

Civis

  • Civis

Location:
Arkansas, USA
Sum does not take an object, that is, the subject with sum is not acting on something or someone. With sum, ideas such as state or condition, status, etc. are at work. So, no reason for it to take an accusative.
 

Devenius Dulenius

Civis

  • Civis

Location:
Arkansas, USA
Just as MIB said. Sorry, I didn't see your comment when I posted.
 

Devenius Dulenius

Civis

  • Civis

Location:
Arkansas, USA
As for not using "meus" with the body part, you have the same function with this in Spanish, a daughter of Latin. You can say, "Me duele la cabeza", or "Tengo dolor de cabeza" (My head hurts/I have a headache), but you would not say, ""*Me duele mi cabeza" or "*Tengo dolor de mi cabeza". (where mi means "my") In the first sentence, it is word for word, "(to) me hurts the head", in the second, "I have pain of the head". Here the pronoun me and the first person verb tengo make clear whose head is hurting. Thus, no need for the possessive adjective. Plus, in such a situation, you would assume it is my head unless otherwise specified. I believe the same operates in such a Latin context.
 

Devenius Dulenius

Civis

  • Civis

Location:
Arkansas, USA
Also, John, I would caution against assuming something in Latin does not make sense because it does not work (or appear to work) the way it would in English. Each language has its own genius--its own unique ways of expressing ideas. This is not unique to Latin vs English. It is, indeed quite common for one language to express something differently than another language.
 

Devenius Dulenius

Civis

  • Civis

Location:
Arkansas, USA
We can all take comfort in this thought: monolingualism can be cured! :clapping:
 

Devenius Dulenius

Civis

  • Civis

Location:
Arkansas, USA
One more thought before lunch time: when learning a language, it's better, IMHO, to make as few assumptions as possible. When I started my study of French in high school, I made a lot of assumptions about how French would or should work during the first few weeks. It turned out that I was wrong most of the time. French simply has its own way of doing things. And, so does Latin. Learn to embrace and enjoy the differences between the Latin way and the English way. When there are differences, it doesn't mean Latin is weird or strange. It is just different.
 

Clemens

Aedilis

  • Aedilis

Location:
Maine, United States.
Yes, and some languages are much further afield from the English idiom than is Latin. Some languages encode things that aren't even on English's radar.
 

john abshire

Well-Known Member

  • Patronus

You should probably stop using that dictionary.

You could use this one. Or even Wiktionary, which has occasional mistakes but is usually good enough if you don't want many details.

Sum doesn't take a direct object. It takes a predicate complement, which usually agrees with the subject in the nominative, though it can also be other things such as a prepositional phrase; e.g. in campo sum. The only time the subject and its complement can be accusative is when the form of sum used is an infinitive (esse or fuisse) in an accusative-and-infinitive clause (e.g. se aegrum esse dicit). The precise form sum can't take the accusative. You can't say aegrum sum (unless you're a neuter thing; it still would be nominative, just in the neuter form); it's aeger sum (or aegra for a female).
Thank you for the links to online dictionarys. I prefer a hard copy, but the good ones are too expensive. Plus online is very handy (and I am getting more addicted).
 
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